• Nutrients are substances that are consumed by the body and are essential for life.
  • Nutrients are divided into 3 types:
    • Water
    • Macronutrients
    • Micronutrients


  • An adult body is around 70% water
  • The chemical reactions needed for life take place in water
  • The body uses water as part of the system to regulate body temperature (e.g. sweating)
  • It is the largest component of:
    • Cells
    • Blood
    • The fluid between cells
  • It lubricates joints, eyes, mouth, and other structures
  • Your kidneys use water to remove waste from your blood
  • Water is a necessary part of the digestion process


  • Macronutrients are ingested by the body in the form of food and drink
  • They are broken down by the digestive system into smaller molecules that can be absorbed
  • They are divided into 3 types:
    • Carbohydrates
    • Lipids
    • Proteins
  • Carbohydrates
    • Carbohydrates include:
      • Sugars
      • Starches
      • Fibers
    • They are often found in fruits, vegetables, grains, and milk products
  • Lipids
    • Lipids include:
      • Fats
      • Oils
      • Other substances, such as hormones, and vitamins A, D, E and K
  • Proteins
    • Proteins are formed of amino acids, which are the building blocks of the body
  • Carbohydrates and lipids are called the "energy-yielding" nutrients because the body can use metabolic processes to convert them to ATP


  • Micronutrients include vitamins and minerals
  • They participate in many essential chemical reactions
  • Some micronutrients, such as calcium are used to create and maintain structures in the body
  • Vitamins:
    • they are organic compounds
    • created by plants and animals
  • Minerals:
    • inorganic compounds
    • originally found in soil and water